Baekeland and Hartmann report that the “short sleepers” had been more or less average in their sleep needs until the men were in their teens. But at about age 15 or so, the men voluntarily began cutting down their nightly sleep time because of pressures from school, work, and other activities. These men tended to view their nightly periods of unconsciousness as bothersome interruptions in their daily routines.
In general, these “short sleepers” appeared ambitious, active, energetic, cheerful, conformist (不動搖) in their opinions, and were very sure about their career choices. They often held several jobs at once, or worked full-or part-time while going to school. And many of them had a strong urge to appear “normal” or “acceptable” to their friends and associates.
When asked to recall their dreams, the “short sleepers” did poorly. More than this, they seemed to prefer not remembering. In similar fashion, their usual way of dealing with psychological problems was to deny that the problem existed, and then to keep busy in the hope that the trouble would go away.
The sleep patterns of the “short sleepers” were similar to, but less extreme than, sleep patterns shown by many mental patients categorized as manic (瘋人).
The “long sleepers” were quite different indeed. Baekeland and Hartmann report that these young men had been lengthy sleepers since childhood. They seemed to enjoy their sleep, protected it, and were quite concerned when they were occasionally deprived of their desired 9 hours of nightly bed rest. They tended to recall their dreams much better than did the “short sleepers”.
Many of the “long sleepers” were shy, anxious, introverted (內向), inhibited (壓抑), passive, mildly depressed, and unsure of themselves (particularly in social situations). Several openly state that sleep was an escape from their daily problems.
1. According to the report, ______.
A. many short sleepers need less sleep by nature
B. many short sleepers are obliged to reduce their nightly sleep time because they are busy with their work
C. long sleepers sleep a longer period of time during the day
D. many long sleepers preserve their sleeping habit formed during their childhood
2. Many “short sleepers” are likely to hold the view that ______.
A. sleep is a withdrawal from the reality
B. sleep interferes with their sound judgement
C. sleep is the least expensive item on their routine program
D. sleep is the best way to deal with psychological troubles
3. It is stated in the third paragraph that short sleepers ______.
A. are ideally vigorous even under the pressures of life
B. often neglect the consequences of inadequate sleep
C. do not know how to relax properly
D. are more unlikely to run into mental problems
4. When sometimes they cannot enjoy adequate sleep, the long sleepers might ______.
A. appear disturbed
B. become energetic
C. feel dissatisfied
D. be extremely depressed
5. Which of the following is NOT included in the passage?
A. If one sleeps inadequately, his performance suffers and his memory is weakened.
B. The sleep patterns of short sleepers are exactly the same as those shown by many mental patients.
C. Long and short sleepers differ in their attitudes towards sleep.
D. Short sleepers would be better off with more rest.1.【答案】D。解析：細節題。根據倒數第二段第一句中的... these young men had been lengthy sleepers since childhood. 可知睡眠時間長的習慣是從小就形成的，故D項正確。根據第一段第一句：the “short sleepers” had been more or less average in their sleep needs until the men were in their teens. 可知，睡眠少的人在青春期到來之前他們的睡眠需求基本是屬于正常水平的，由此可知A項錯誤;文章第一段第二句是說the men voluntarily began cutting down their nightly sleep time because of pressures from …，他們是自愿削減睡眠時間的，而不是B項說的are obliged to不得不，被迫，所以B錯誤;根據倒數第二段倒數第二句：… were quite concerned when they were occasionally deprived of their desired 9 hours of nightly bed rest … 可知，睡眠時間長的人是在晚上睡覺，文章沒有提到睡眠時間長的人在白天的睡眠時間是否更長，所以C沒有提到。故選D。
3.【答案】B。解析：推斷題。關于夢境，睡眠少的人不愿去記自己做了什么夢，也不愿正視自己存在的心理問題。由此可推斷他們忽視睡眠不足的影響。故選B。該段只是說這些人keep busy以期望心理問題能夠自行解決，keep busy不等于are ideally vigorous，故排除A;該段并沒有涉及任何“睡眠少的人不知道如何放松”及“睡眠少的人更不可能得心理疾病”的信息，故排除C、D。
4.【答案】A。解析：細節題。根據倒數第二段第三句話中的They ... were quite concerned when they were occasionally deprived of their desired 9 hours of nightly bed rest. 可知如果偶爾被剝奪了充足的睡眠的話，他們會焦慮、擔憂。四個選項中只有A項“顯得不安”與原文意思最接近，故答案選A。become energetic與原文意思相反;feel dissatisfied沒有表達出“焦慮”的意思;be extremely depressed程度過重。
5.【答案】B。解析：細節題。根據原文中對short sleepers和long sleepers的dreams的回憶情況可知，long sleepers在這方面做得要比short sleepers好得多，由此可推知如果睡眠不充分，一個人的記憶等表現會變弱，故A、D兩項正確;根據第四段The sleep patterns of the “short sleepers” were similar to, but less extreme than, sleep patterns shown by many mental patients ... 可知睡眠少的人，其睡眠模式只是和精神病患者的睡眠模式相似，而并非完全相同，故B項錯誤;根據第一段最后一句及第五段中描述的short sleepers和long sleepers對睡眠的不同態度可知C項正確